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So, in English sentence the grammatical sense depends on word order. 2) Мышь поймала кошка. Thus, in answer to the question Ктћ предстђвил Сђшу? Is there any logic behind the Russian word order? In some languages, word order and other syntactic phenomena are determined largely by the topic–comment (theme–rheme) structure. For example, if we say "Cats eat mice", we clearly understand that "cats" is here the subject of the action "eat" and the object of this action is "mice". Russian, unlike English, does not denote the grammatical role of words by their order. Yay! So, figure out what is your rheme and build and articulate a sentence accordingly. See “Determining Dominant Word Order”. And does it make Russian a bit easier to learn since you don’t have to memorize a specific word order for simple sentences and questions? In Russian, a single basic form (word stem) exists for most verbs that takes a variety of endings. what is new about the topic. Each Russian case has its own purpose and answers a particular set of questions. It is best to learn the … One of the reasons that cases are so important in the Russian language is the flexibility of the Russian sentence word order. Я видел её (simply stating that I saw her) This silly post is your definitive guide on a massive 244 Russian Swear Words, Slang, Phrases, Insults and Expletives, or How To Swear In Russian!. Russian is an example of a language with flexible word order in which SVO order can be considered dominant, so Russian is shown on the map as SVO. Post scriptum: for the Russian ear, English intonations sound very monotonous. In addition, some forms of the verb are formed using the auxiliary verb "быть". The vowels е, ё, и, ю, я indicate a preceding palatalized consonant and with the … In both cases, you have to help to convey your message with intonations. The presenta-tion is carried out in the framework of the Meaning-Text approach, whose main principles and con-ventions are taken to be known to the reader (see, for instance, [Mel’čuk 1988: 43-91, Mel’čuk 2009 or Mel’čuk & Pertsov 1987]). Now you know why: with intonations, the Russian language indicates the main focus of a sentence helping others to figure out what exactly you wanted to say. Russian, for example, formally has the S-V-O structure, but it breaks it here and there, playing frivolously with the rules. One of these peculiarities is that in written Russian new information (or emphasized information) comes at the end of the sentence. word order in Russian is left out, although such factors are used in the rules proposed. For the beginner in Russian there is nothing very important to remember about word order – other than the fact that it is very flexible. Shop Store Theme by aThemeArt - Proudly powered by WordPress, All of the prices posted on our website are the US Dollars. In English, the word order plays an important role because it shows the relationships between parts in the sentence (subject, object, etc.). If another word order is used: В Москву едет Мария. My English-speaking friends told me that they thought Russian sounds too dramatic, too emotional. In Russian, word order is determined largely by topic-comment structure, and though I didn’t read any scientific articles specifically focused on topicality in the Russian language, I believe Russian is at least partially a topic-prominent language. The relationships between parts of the Russian sentence are shown by the endings of words. Post post scriptum: It is very common in English to ask “what are you saying?”. Meaning is expressed through the addition of words (for example auxiliaries) and movement of words within limited boundaries. For example a phrase Поезд идет (train comes) is best translated as A train is coming. The old, known part of a sentence is its topic. At the same time, Russian word order has its own peculiarities. For example, while translating a Russian sentence, you can use the word order of the English sentence and native speakers will always understand you. As sentences can be put together in so many ways, cases help distinguish the sentence's subject from its object. Well, the word order in Russian places the known pieces of information – what is called the theme ( тема) – at the beginning of a sentence, and the new pieces – what’s called the rheme ( рема ), at the end. You can find out more about Russian swearing in more detail here – and actually maybe learn some proper Russian! The endings of Russian words change depending on the case they are in. In these sentences, the subject and the object of the action "eat" remain the same. Я её видел. what you are talking about, and the comment (rheme or focus), i.e. In Russian, it is not that common. That is why, if you change the position of the Russian words, the overall meaning of the sentence will not change. Мышей едят кошки. For example, look at the sentence: Мария едет в Москву. Yes, profanities from languages around the world is subject matter that appears a lot in this silly travel blog!. Едят кошки мышей. Look at the following example: In the Russian sentence, the object of the action is shown by the ending -ей of the word мышей. Vowels. The general rule for Russian word order is to put new information at the end of the sentence. At school, we were taught to identify subjects and verbs, but the formal analysis is not the only possibility, and also, it is not the most helpful when it comes to studying foreign languages. I’ll try to explain it here. Идет поезд more corresponds to The train is coming. Russian, on the other hand, conveys meaning largely through changes in the composition of words (e.g., by inflections or the addition of prefixes and suffixes). In Russian, word order is determined largely by topic-comment structure, and though I didn’t read any scientific articles specifically focused on topicality in the Russian language, I … It is very common in Russia that the object goes before the verb, the subject may go last and so on. English has a fairly fixed word order. Видел я её. : If you are learning Russian, you might have heard that in Russian, word order is flexible. It does so, instead, by changing the endings of words. Russian intonations, on the contrary, are always up and down. Depending on the grammatical sense and role in the sentence, Russian words have different endings. For example, В комнату вошёл человек. Russian grammar--> Word order in Russian In English, the word order plays an important role because it shows the relationships between parts in the sentence (subject, object, etc.). Also, Russian does not have definite or indefinite articles, and word order sometimes acts as a substitute. Why does this happen? means “A person entered the room,” and. If we switch the position of nouns "cats" and "mice", we get "Mice eat cats", a sentence with a different meaning. There are a number of different subtypes of languages lacking a dominant order which are not distinguished on the map. It took me a few years to learn to hear different emotions and communicative accents in English behind the relatively calm flow of English speech. In a conversation, the word order is more flexible since intonation and stress may be used to show the emphasized information in a sentence. Its word order is very fluid. – I saw her, meaning that you physically saw her, did not just chat online or talk on a phone. The good news is that yes, there is some logic behind the flexibility of the Russian word order. For example, it is possible to have clauses where the subject is not the topic, such as in passive voice. - Maria goes to Moscow. For example, the sentence "A cat caught a mouse" can be translated into Russian in the following ways: 1) Кошка поймала мышь. There are two ‘strong’ positions in a sentence where you can put your comment/ rheme – the very beginning or the very end. In some languages, word order and other syntactic phenomena are determined largely by the topic–comment (theme–rheme) structure. These languages are sometimes referred to as topic-prominent languages.”. For example, the simplest sentence “I saw her” can be translated into Russian in three different ways: – It is Maria who goes to Moscow. However, Russian word order is very flexible. Though the Russian sentence is generally arranged SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT, the grammar rules allow to use virtually any combination of subject, verb and object within the sentence. The emphasis is on the word Москва (Moscow), it is a new information because this sentence tells where Maria goes. Человек вошёл в … Here is what wikipedia says about it: “The difference between ‘topic’ and a grammatical subject is that topic is used to describe the information structure, or pragmatic structure of a clause and how it coheres with other clauses, whereas the subject is a purely grammatical category. When you build a sentence in Russian, you have to think about what exactly you are going to say about the topic. These languages are sometimes referred to as topic-prominent languages.”. Dismiss. I suspect, because, in Russian, you can actualize what you are saying with the word order and intonations. Not all languages follow the formal S-V-O structure, and even if they do, they may do it inconsistently. (With the accent on the first word, it would state that it was you, not anybody else who saw her; with the accent on the last word, you would insist that you saw her – intonations play along with word order) the word Мђша (the new information) is saved till the end of the sentence: Сђшу предстђвила Мђша 'Sasha was introduced by Masha.' What exactly does this mean? To what degree is Russian word order flexible? If you want to know more about word endings and their grammatical role in Russian, we recommend you to see the page Cases in Russian on our website. The emphasis is on the word Мария (Maria), and, in this case, the sentence tells who goes to Moscow. So, because of words endings, the parts of the Russian sentence can go in almost any order without causing any misunderstanding on the part of the listener. 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